Tomáš Hoskovec
La perspective fonctionnelle de la phrase — Dans une perspective historico-philologique du foyer pragois de structuralisme fonctionnel
Abstract : Functional sentence perspective in a historical perspective of the Prague centre of functional structuralism. The “functional sentence perspective” and the “topic-focus articulation” (of a sentence) designate now two different schools within the Prague linguistic tradition. Yet to Vilém Mathesius, founder and promoter of the Prague structuralist programme, and pioneer of functional research into sentence meaning, they rather represented two terminological variants. To him, a perspective was a way bringing together sentences differing in their formal grammatical shape, but similar in their textual (utterance) function, so that their respective meanings could be described by minute mutual oppositions. The “functional”, i.e. communicative perspective, articulating about what (topic) something is conveyed (focus) when the sentence is uttered, is only one perspective among others Mathesius took into account. The article explains why, in the classical period of the Prague Linguistic Circle, sentence phonology was consciously kept apart from the study of communicative sentence perspective, and outlines how, in the post-classical periods, that branch of studies ramified into different schools.